Social Network Travel Logging

Many of us who travel come home with memory cards full of travel pics. The majority will show the places that we have been to. Often they may also include shots of people we meet as well. I thought it might be interesting to have a travel log (including an evolving network map) which starts with people we meet and then support this with the places that we meet, rather than the other way around. The idea is that I intend to build the social network of people that we meet or connect with as we travel to new places over a 40 day period.

There is a connection to ‘Social Business’ here. As the term implies, the line between ‘social’ activities and ‘business’ is now well and truly blurred. Friends can become business associates in the same way as business associates can become friends. On this 40 day ‘Holiday Trip’ I met with business associates who had become friends and I also took the opportunity in Israel to meet face-to-face, two online connections I have had for some time. While the Internet affords connections that would have previously been unthinkable, relationships thrive on such face-to-face encounters.

The full Travel Blog includes ‘Side Bar’ social networking reflections I had while writing the actual travel content. I have extracted and edited the content for this blog post, but it is still quite long. So here is the network map after 40 days:

Slide34And here is a highlights reel:

Side Bar 1 – Interesting connections and 6 degrees of separation

 I am reminded of how, as social beings, we naturally look for connections. We do this by trying to identify something we have in common, however obtuse. When we find something, we can start to connect and bond. If we find nothing then we will probably just move on and completely forget the contact. Sometimes it can be something simple like the episode above (chance meeting on a ski lift), that makes the connection memorable. However the more radical the connection, for example meeting a complete stranger in a place foreign to both of you and finding that you know someone in common….that becomes really memorable.

I had one such episode at a conference in Colorado many years ago. I was hanging out with some folks from Alcoa, Pittsburgh when one of them said to me…”you know I only know one person from Australia’ his name is Bill F.” Amazingly Bill was someone I did know as well through a work engagement. He and Bill had worked together at a previous company for them both. We laughed when to think that from a population of 20 million people that the two of us who had never met before would find a common connection.

More recently Julie and I had joined a tour group in Turkey and met Sharon and Tony. They lived in Sydney but had previously lived in Port Macquarie. After a bit of exploring we found that one of their best friends had gone to college with Julie and they had even lived together during that time! They shared some even more incredible six degree stories of their own. I find these small world connections so fascinating. We still keep in contact with Sharon and Tony, no doubt influenced by our shared connections. Interestingly, in that same share house of Julie’s she had another friend Margaret who she hitchhiked around New Zealand with over 30 years ago now.  Recently we found that it is highly likely that they are related based on some genealogy detective work that Julie’s sister Kerri has been doing recently.

 It really is a small world after all!

 Side-bar 2 – Intriguing Connection Reflections

Looking back on our “White Xmas” its intriguing to reflect on how much our connections, both people and places, influence and shape our life experiences. How our social networks evolve through surprising and sometimes coincidental connection of intrigue. I’m always fascinated by such connections…we’ve all had our 6 degrees of separation moments,.. that make life interesting. Here are some of ours from this trip:

 Thirty two years ago Julie and I made our first trip to Europe for a skiing white Xmas in a small Austrian town called St. Ulrich …. Interestingly Ortesei also goes by that same German name.
st ulrichWe were a little younger than our own children are now. That trip took us through Japan to London and then to Austria for our 2 week skiing over Xmas and New Year. We had extended family with us, my cousin Debbie and her then boyfriend, Danny and Julie’s sister Kerrie and husband David. We met one couple on that trip, Beau and Janice, who were from the same town as us. Eventually our children became good friends at university. After that we travelled through Italy for the first time. With Debbie  and Danny we stopped in Milan to visit with Gary’s (from Gary & Lyn), sister Lynnie and her then husband Giovanni. This visit was memorable for a number of reasons. Firstly while we were there Gary rang with the news of his first born son David (from David & Theresa) who was with us on this trip.  We had first met Giovanni at their wedding in Sydney but we still recall the pleasure and relief of being met by a native speaking Italian at Milan station after several weeks of struggling with European languages, and now being guided around by a local.

We will be meeting with Giovanni later in this trip so I will talk more about our connections through Giovanni then. It is suffice to say however that without our connections to Giovanni it is doubtful that I would be writing this post from Italy today.

Sidebar 3 – Eras of travelling: Generational Networking Practices

 Aussies are avid travellers and we are no different. Travel has become easier over the years. When I reflect back on my travelling experiences there are three definite eras….BC (before children); WC (with children) and AC (after children). BC is travelling on the cheap in hostels and cheap hotels; WC is more expensive and invariably requires family sized accommodations. AC is more comfortable. The accommodation is better and usually the food as well, as we only have to cater for ourselves while we spend the kids’ inheritance.

 Julie and I did quite a lot of travel BC. Before partnering up I had made my first overseas trip and had my first ‘away from home’ Xmas in Asia, flying to Malaysia on a cheap student flight with a couple of mates. During that trip we endured a 42 hour bus trip on muddy back roads to Bangkok and then back down to Singapore staying in cheap hotels all the way. Yes in Singapore’s less pristine days there were cheap hotels in Bencoolan st, and Boogie St was a gay bar buzz of street markets and she-hes. Oddly enough they insisted on males having short hair. I had the 1970s long hair style of the day and it took two trips to the barber to meet the standard. The last haircut was given by a barber located at the border crossing from Malaysia! Julie had done the outback tour through the back of Queensland, NSW and South Australia. We had then both independently done the New Zealand back backer thing, hitch-hiking around both islands (in the days before back packer murderers) and staying in cheap youth hostels or just camping out in our $30 cheapie tents.

 A little later in our WC days I had the bight idea that we should re-discover that experience with our then teen-aged children. They were both studying languages at school and I was sure that in a few years time they would become independent back packers as well. Here was a chance for them to practice their language skills and we would also save money by staying at pack packers around New Zealand. We didn’t go so far as to try and hitch hike, but I did find a good rental deal at “Rent-a wreck” (it really only did break down once in Dunedin). Well in hindsight I was right about them doing the back-packer thing but the early exposure was a #fail! You should have seen the shock on Erin’s face when she heard that we would have to actually share a bathroom with strangers. Even worse some backpacker had mistakenly set up in our room….how could you even think about sharing a room with complete strangers! On our last day of the trip we arrived in Christchurch to see the backpacker hotel that we had booked into. As was typical they were basically un-renovated old hotels in the centre of town (usually on the edge of the red light district). This one however was about 3 centimetres from the bell tower of the church in the centre of town….and it was ringing away as we approached.  They all turned to me and said in unison…”we’re not staying there Dad!”. As it turned out the NZ tourist industry was suffering from the loss of Asian tourists because of the Asian bird flue epidemic. We managed to pick up a luxury apartment for not much more than the back packers. Erin was in heaven luxuriating with her own bath and Gav was likewise happy to be surfing the cable channels. I noticed on the recent footage of the Christchurch earthquakes that the hotel and church had been extensively damaged….so I guess both will now have to be renovated…can you get sound-proofed bells?

 Our AC travel has been somewhat more relaxing. It is often said that an overseas trip can make or break a relationship. Julie and I travel well together even though we have quite diverse interests. Julie trained in Art and so the European galleries are her nirvana. I trained in Metallurgy and Computer science, so seeing the first Bessemer Iron making furnace in the Smithsonian in Washington or the Turing machine was what gave me a buzz…but alas there are far more art galleries around than science museums. We managed to find a workable compromise though. I was happy for us to visit as many art galleries as Julie wanted to, we just had to go through them fast!

 Our AC travel has also seen us regularly meet up with our children overseas, mostly together, like this time, but sometimes apart. Over recent years my annual Italian conference trip has been followed by a weekend away with Erin for her birthday. This year it was Stockholm, last year Budapest.

When Gavin was also in London he decided to do a one man surfie tour of Western Europe. As parents you naturally worry about a son buying an old van and driving alone through unknown territory …. crazy Aussie surfer. Sounds just like a young Rosario driving alone to Perth across the Nullabour and then to Darwin … not without incident and as it turned out it was the same for Gavin.

In one small coastal town we called in on the recommended hostel to be told that they were full. They did say however that they had another place closer to town and that we should look there. It was only a small village so we decided to walk. On the way we saw this impressive new apartment block renting apartments so I suggested we look in there. Looked wonderful, several bedrooms with their own televisions, fully air conditioned and two modern bathrooms….and at a very attractive price. I was ready to stay here but we thought we better look at the other place as they were expecting us. We arrived at the town site…a quirky brightly coloured building on the waterfront and yes right in the village. They showed us the room, which was just that, one single room with three single beds and a small window facing the ocean. No internal bathroom, you had to walk outside and down the hall to the shared facilities. When we learned the price was the same as the previous apartment we looked at, so I declared “this is a no-brainer”. “Yes they responded in unison, we’re going to stay here!…who wants to stay in a boring apartment!”… how times had changed since the New Zealand fiasco!

We have however managed to travel to many other countries beyond my work destinations, some triggered by work connections, like Rosario and Maria’s wedding in South Africa

Rosario & Maria

which was a real treat. Two more this trip being Israel and Jordan. The world is such a big place, we feel we are only just scratching the surface.

 I read an article once that indicated that our networking patterns changed as we grow older. As youngsters we spend a lot of our time collecting new connections. Mid career we learn how to distinguish connections we want to nurture while still collecting new ones. In our later years we become much more discerning about how we spend our ‘networking time’. Having lived through these generations and observing my own children I’m not so sure that these findings hold up now. Apparently the growth segment for Facebook now is amongst retirees over 65! The technology not only helps us develop new connections, but to also reconnect with old connections.

 Side-Bar 4 – The blessing of being born English speaking.

 As English has become the dominant language across the world and more especially in the business world, I am eternally grateful that I was born English speaking. I spent 6 years in high school studying French, but even then at the end of it could barely string a sentence together let alone understand what a native French speaker was saying to me. I recall on our first trip to France down on the Riviera I called into an information booth to get a local map. The attendant refused to speak English and wanted me to speak French to her…they can be pretty arrogant to the English speakers in that area. I called on my best halting French with some effort. She immediately slapped down the map in front of me….she knew what I wanted all the time!

 In my lecturing I am regularly teaching non-native English speakers from Asia, the Middle East, Scandinavia, South America and Eastern Europe as well. The Scandinavians from Denmark, Sweden and Norway are excellent, as are students from Hong Kong. Chinese students are known to be very studious. However I found that they often preferred to have the online notes than to attend the lectures (though they usually did out of respect, but never interacted in class discussions). I could tell from their emails that they were working well into the night. Clearly they were doing twice the work of a native English speaker, having to tediously translate their work, while at the same time trying to avoid being seen to plagiarise. I can see how tempting it is for a non-English speaker to “borrow” a good turn of a phrase that they might find in the literature. I would often say to them that I know that in their minds they have some real insights and that they should try to share them in their own words, no matter how bad the English might be (of course this made my job harder in assessing, but plagiarism risks are much worse). I felt their frustration….”so much to say…but no way to say it”.

Language also strongly dictates whom we connect with. We will always prefer to connect with people we find it easy to communicate with. Even in my classes I could see the cliques formed around shared language. Mostly this is a good thing as they can help each other. Sometimes not so good if they are sharing a wrong interpretation or understanding of what is required. Networks aren’t selective. They will propagate both good and bad information with the same effectiveness. Rumours are different however, they travel the fastest!

 A few years ago Julie and I enjoyed our first real cruise holiday down the Dalmatian coast. We were with cruising veterans, Julie’s sister Kerrie, husband David and their daughter Katrina. The Cruise line was French and therefore the majority of passengers French. Over the period of a week we found ourselves gravitating toward the small English-speaking enclave. We even found some common connections around Wollongong, where Julie and Kerrie grew up and Kerrie still lives. It was my time to experience being part of the language minority. Language can have a big effect on our networking patterns. This is why the social networking sites are so powerful as it gives the non-native English speakers the time to ingest and compose English language discussion interactions. And this is the same for e-learning and why online learning will also help bridge the language gap.

 Side Bar 5  – Connections that Matter

 In Network Science we often talk about Brokers and/or Bridges. These are people that can connect you to other groups that you would normally not come into contact with. This can be particularly important across language barriers as common languages tend to define our communities. As the world becomes increasingly globalised these brokers are becoming increasingly important. While I have said that I am happy to have been born as a native English speaker, I also admire the muliti-lingual talents of some native foreign speakers. I sometimes regret not being able to speak the language of my Chinese heritage. It does become awkward when travelling and/or lecturing in Asia. Of course there is an expectation that I can speak Chinese. Recently when in Hong Kong with friends Noelene and Geoff (who will be joining us on this trip in Israel) we went to a regional Yum Cha restaurant. The waitresses obviously thought I was hosting these visitors and addressed me in Chinese. I responded that I would speak English only in respect for my visitors. They weren’t fooled, we could hear them tittering to their fellow waitresses about the Chinese guy with the broad Aussie accent!

 Many of these important brokers have been introduced to us through family connections. Some have come through friends, but how many of your acquaintances (or what network scientists call ‘weak tie’ connections) have ended up having a major influence on you life experiences? How did you first connect? What was the source of common interest? For my wife Julie our first common connection was that her sister Kerrie and I were both studying Metallurgy and working at the BHP (in different cities though). Interestingly my brother who was also studying Metallurgy was in Kerrie’s classes in Wollongong and working at the BHP. In those days working at the ‘big Australian’, BHP was seen as a real coup. How quickly connections can build through serendipitous associations.

Sidebar 6 – Bridging Disparate Communities

The importance of the bridge/broker is heavily reported in the social network science literature. The fact is that when we aim to build our expertise in our preferred fields of endeavour we do this by surrounding ourselves with ‘like minds’, often to the exclusion of those that do not share the same interests and passions. Malcolm Gladwell in his book “Outliers”, popularized the view that it takes 10,000 + hour of concentrated effort to develop any level of distinguished expertise in an area. I think one could also come up with a complementary measure of the number of  ‘Like Minds’ one might need to be connected with, to develop that level of expertise. Social Network Scientists have studied “hot spot’ areas of expertise like the Technology hubs around Silicon Valley and Boston, and perhaps the art history hub around Florence and the list goes on. We have been involved on the periphery with a number of government initiatives looking to build business ‘clusters’, acknowledging the value of co-locating clusters of expertise.

Therefore to find individuals that are able to bridge quite disparate fields is indeed vary rare. While many of us can have diverse interests, this rarely means high levels of expertise in more than one area. There are few people I can think of that have been world leaders in two quite different fields. The standout of course is Vincent Van Gogh who was able to bridge the worlds of science and art as a leader in both fields. Perhaps Benjamin Franklin in Science and Music. Who else? I’m sure that other names will pop up, but how many in recent years. Today one has to specialise to be able to compete in an increasingly globalised world. So I suspect we will never see another Van Gogh, Franklin or the like.

 Side-Bar 7 – GPS adventures – unexpected but memorable experiences

Let me say upfront that I think that GPS devices are amazing technology that I’ve come to depend on to the extent that I can’t think what I did without them. That said, no technology is perfect and with any technology, if you become over-dependent on it and have no ‘Plan B’ then life can get interesting. Italy in particular can be difficult to navigate for reasons I’ve already mentioned. I recall the days when we had to rely on paper maps. We had good maps of city centres and a good map of the whole of Italy, but if you wanted to go somewhere in between, you were on your own.

GPS adventures are a little different. Map errors can prove interesting. More than once, in the UK, we have had the GPS happily announce we had reached our destination when we were in the middle of nowhere. On this trip we have visited some villages by mistake that we would never have seen otherwise. The most interesting times can happen when you miss a turn and the GPS tries to get you back on track. We have been on some pretty scary roads. This trip we have been asked to go on some of the narrowest roads (both side mirrors folded in). In the UK we have driven down roads with hedges scaping both sides of the car. We missed a turn once and had to travel 14 klms on the Heathrow express way before we could turn around. This was after a long day driving already.

On the other hand I’m amazed at how well they can do at times. One winter up near York in the UK we were driving in pitch black, no street lights or signs, only our headlights and it guided us to our remote B&B, which we would never have found otherwise. On that same trip we were out in the country and the GPS announced a toll road. We could not believe that it could be right, but sure enough, in the UK there are still some private roads that the public use and here was a toll booth with the attendant taking 10p for the kilometer or so of private road we were to use.

Who else has had an interesting GPS adventure?  What memorable experiences have you had by taking a wrong path (both physically or figuratively!)

 Sidebar 8 – The Importance of Weak Ties

 You will notice now after some 20+ days now that the cumulative social network map is getting pretty busy. You might ask what is the value of this? It just looks like a big mess. Others may see it as a piece of abstract art. In fact network maps have been used in Art Exhibitions. I saw this exhibition of Mark Lombardi’s hand drawn network maps when I first met fellow Social Network Analyst Valdis Krebs in the 1990s when he took me to see it in his home town of Cleveland. Art aside, social network analysts use these messy network maps to explore for interesting patterns that can tell us something new or insightful about the people in the network. They do this by taking selective snapshots from the network. For example, I could extract just the network nodes from certain places, like say, Northern Italy. I could select by time like say, the 2 week period around the 1st of January. I could select based on the link type e.g. friends only, friends and family etc.. 

 You might suggest that I could make the maps look less messy by not including the serendipitous acquaintances like the people we met in a cable car, or in a restaurant for instance. They are only fleeting connections with a high likelihood that we will never connect with them again. This is absolutely true, but not all connections need to be direct connections. Network scientists also work with what we call “affinity” connections i.e. people that are connected through common attributes. Some of these are obvious, like we met them at the same place. You can see some of those on the maps now. Others may not emerge until some time after. These are time based associative patterns that only emerge over time. We might only make these connections when looking back over time. For example I might reflect over our time in Sicily and note an associative connection between 3 of our AirBnB hosts Linda, Anna and Elena. Firstly they are independent female hosts running a B&B as their “business”. Two of them are single and still live with their parents, perhaps making a statement about modern day Sicilian women…in fact the exception Linda also provides commentary on this topic. This is all grit for the mill for the social scientist.

The other reason that we like to include ‘weak ties’ in our analyses as it has been found that weak ties are often the source of our most memorable experiences. Sure, perhaps 99% will fade into obscurity, but it is the 1%, those serendipitous 6 degrees of separation that we never forget. On a more business like note, our weak ties have also been shown to be the most likely source of innovation as they bring in new and diverse knowledge and experiences that we would not normally come into contact with. They have also been found to be the most likely way of finding a new job…. the topic of the now most celebrated theory of American academic Mark Granovetter’s Strength of Weak Ties.

Side Bar 9 – Social Technologies finding mainstream application

 We mostly think of social software being designed specifically to bring people together for social interactions. Facebook facilitates interactions between friends, Linkedin facilitates more business focussed interactions. We are however now finding mainstream applications that have social technologies at their heart and with the expectation that they will outperform traditional software because of that. Twitter is perhaps a good example of software software designed for people to socialise via short sound bites, that is now being used as an early warning news source. Breaking information around natural disasters more regularly comes through Twitter, than conventional sources, with the people on the ground, in the event, being able to act as reporters. News trends are also being reported through mining of Twitter hash tags. Twitter is one of the reasons for the disruption being felt now in the publishing industry, worldwide. Ebay’s auction application was arguably the first major application of social technologies for mainstream use. Ebay was started as a means for people with common interests to get together and trade artefacts. This has now grown to be the world’s leading online selling application, on its way disrupting traditional retail markets.

 In our tour with Benny H. I noticed that he was using a GPS application that is gaining popularity and one I had recently also loaded on my iphone. It is called Waze and as it turns out , it is an Israeli software innovation and the CEO is a friend of Benny’s. What is unique about Waze is that it does not rely on existing road maps as its base. It simply tracks where vehicles using its software are travelling and therefore builds its maps from this data. Additionally it uses social techniques to encourage people to report on points of interest, the most important being traffic incidents. As Benny suggested, Waze uses complex systems methods to collect information from independent agents and then to fuse this information in a way that it benefits all of the agents. Clearly cloud technology and the ability to collect realtime information from agents has made the Waze model possible….and we are likely to see more of this as cloud technologies mature. The unique utility that Waze offers is that the path it provides to you takes dynamic notice of traffic situations, and is therefore really the fastest route to your destination. As with all new software there has been some interesting anecdotes about its early use. Waze can claim to be the first GPS software with a map to the Antarctic! All it took was for someone travelling there to have Waze operating while they made the trip. It did not need a pre-existing road system. On the more negative side Benny told a story about one time where the software actually created a traffic jam by sending people through the same bottleneck. He called his CEO friend to point this issue out, only to be told that he wasn’t the first and the CEO had been inundated with complaints. Apparently there was a glitch in the cloud system that prevented certain servers from updating information …. I suspect this is an issue that only real-time applications like Wayz might be impacted by.

 We will undoubtedly see more mainstream software relying on social models as their core means of delivery. This fusion of social and traditional is an exciting evolution which promises to bring another level of everyday utility to software consumers.

Side-Bar 10 – Social Network Analysis and Jewish Diaspora

 While walking around Jerusalem; a complex fusion of religions, nationalities, cultures and histories I thought about whether network scientists had studied and contributed to resolving the complex issues that exist here. From a building communities perspective, I had previously commented that a common language is the strongest of ‘bonding agents’. Religion would have to be a close second. A quick Google search uncovered this article:

“Re-thinking Jewish ethnicity through social network analysis” – by Anna Collar: In Network Analysis in Archaeology : New Approaches to Regional Interaction; Edited by Carl Knappett

Basically Collar found that looking at the Jewish Diaspora as a small world network provides a deeper insight into how religious innovations diffuse across large networks over time. She does identify that only strong ties can influence change, the weak ties can prepare communities for change via information sharing transmissions. Where weak ties do not exist, the communities become inward looking and parochial.

As we have discovered in other contexts, the more a community are connected by dense strong ties, the less likely that the community will be open to change. The religious denominations are strong tie networks. One does not find people who are both Muslims and Christians. There are however people who are happy to be open to the views of multiple religions, but these ‘weak tie’ people are not in a position to influence change. Perhaps it requires the religious leaders to look for points of commonality, rather than points of differences if we are to achieve a more peaceful co-existence between the religious denominations. Interestingly co-existence of religious denominations was the stated objective of the Jews for Temple Mount. Weak ties can still be useful for information dissemination between the denominations, but the denominations have to be open receptors. Our Jewish guide Effie may have had his prejudices, but to do his job well he had to become well informed about other religious denominations. Perhaps weak tie linkers educated like Effie could play an important role in brokering at least a tolerance of religious differences. Perhaps the network scientists can contribute something here.

Back to the Jewish Diaspora …. arguably the largest network of its type, network science definitely has a role to play in sustaining and improving its connectedness. We have already had discussions with the CEO of an Australian Diaspora network on this very topic.

 Side Bar 11 – Selling Networks

 The stall holders, donkey and horse taxi riders we saw in Petra are typical of what you see in any country or areas where people are struggling to earn a decent living. We see this in a lot of Asian, Middle Eastern and South American countries and even in the suburbs of well-developed cities. Beyond the clever pitches I am always stunned by how effective the “hidden network” is when you express just the slightest interest in something. It happened to me first in Bali over 30 years ago. I expressed an interest in a carved fisherman… which was not that common. However everywhere I went the vendors would see me coming and rustle around in their stock to pull out the ‘Fisherman”…their intelligence network was absolutely stunning. I also recall visiting a computer market many years ago, intent on building my own PC from parts. I had my list of “best of breed” parts, which no single stallholder had. However one entrepreneurial stallholder quickly ran around to the other stalls and picked up my parts (no formal transactions…they would settle up after) and then built my custom PC on the spot for me!

 When I think about how “big business” goes about its work with expensive customer relationship management systems (CRMs); formal partnerships and agencies; sophisticated analytics; expensive advertising campaigns; you would have to think that there is something to be learnt from these small business networks, built on trust; but highly effective. I would love to map one of these networks but I suspect that their power is in the invisibility of it all. Our guide Riad comes from a large family and seems to be greeted by people everywhere he goes. I joke that he has many cousins. Marguerite’s Son told us that he himself has over 80 cousins just on the Jordanian side … what a start great start to a network!

Sidebar 12 – I find a personal connection with Yolie and Larry (new connections)

 Yolie and Larry joined our organised tour of Jordan. In casual conversation I find out that Yolie managed the development of the NRMAs initial Expert system in the 1980s. Larry was also involved. I started the Expert Systems initiative in BHP in the mid 1980s so we would have attended the same Expert Systems conferences at UTS in Sydney. Our common connection was Professor Ross Quinlan, who was at UTS at the time and the convenor of those early conferences on Expert Systems. So bingo; from two people I had never met before it only took a few days to identify a common connection (without the help of Facebook or Linkedin!).

Final Side-Bar – Travel and Social Networking Closing Perspectives

I created this Social Networking Travel Log (SLOG) to bring a sightly different perspective to the traditional travel blogs by placing people and social connections above places in my reporting. For the most part this has worked, though the “the Organised Tour” parts of the trip did provide less opportunity for new social connections, which I guess is an observation in itself. I also wanted to link the experiences of the past 40 days of travel to a business context, in this case the “social business” context.

 I should start with why I had wanted to write a blog like this in the first place. Some of you may be thinking “what has holiday travel got to do with business?” My response is that the words “Social” and “Business” were previously unconnected, but what about today with all the social media/networking tools? The line separating work and pleasure is getting muddier all the time.

I am an avid traveller and have been fortunate to be able to travel for both work and pleasure, I do however have some friends and relatives that don’t really share this interest (they are in the minority). They appear to have a comfort zone that they are unwilling to move beyond. Even when they do travel, they do not return with the same delight from the experiences as those of us that love to travel. In the workplace we see many people like this. They have found their comfort zone, where they can perform competently, if not necessarily with distinction. They tend not to change jobs or roles too much. In some way we could see them as the “keepers of the status quo”; the signposts of the culture and “how we do things here”. As I said these people tend to be a minority. I have many friends who in their early lives had not been able to afford to travel extensively, but once they start, they just can’t get enough. These are people who may initially appear like the ‘stay at home’ types but once given the opportunity, their minds are broadened and it can change their whole perspective on life.

I was fortunate in by early career to have a Research Director who came to us after a distinguished academic career across Europe and the USA.  He immediately identified how insular we were in Australia (largely due to distance and this was pre-Internet days); and he went about changing this by facilitating greater overseas travel amongst his research staff, even if this meant foregoing the standard business class for overseas travel for economy class travel. We weren’t complaining! In essence this Research Director became the broker for new work experiences and perspectives for a generation of researchers, and I for one am eternally grateful. My Research Director was a ‘Catalyst’ for change. In many business situations staff may find themselves drawn into the status quo. It’s convenient and comfortable. Sometimes it takes a broker, in the form of a catalyst, to awaken the explorer in us. Others seek out these experiences, without the need for such a catalyst. In a travelling context I’ve always admired those that were able to travel the world on a shoestring. They will no doubt be taking risks that many of us are not comfortable with. But their reward is the life experiences that many of us will never have. Of course not all experiences are positive, but even the bad ones are memorable and ones we can learn from.

I believe that the majority of people are open to broadening their minds and moving out of their comfort zones to take on new experiences. Sometimes it just takes that catalyst to make it happen. I’m also convinced that those that travel bring a greater appreciation for cultural differences when they return to the workplace. All workplaces create the opportunity for conflict. We strive for conformity and consensus through building strong bonds but as the saying goes “It’s often the ties that bind us that also blind us”.  As network scientists we will often preach the need for balancing cohesion and diversity. I think from this trip, particularly the middle eastern part, I have learnt a better way of expressing this…and that is “tolerance”. By this I mean that we need to respect that there will be strong communities that we will not always share a common view with. We can waste a lot of time trying to achieve a common view, a consensus if you like. The challenge of the “social business” will be to thrive without the discipline of top down control. From what I have experienced in the middle East, the vast majority of the people we met were looking for an amiable co-existence, not a domination of one over the other (which the media would have us believe). It is even too much to expect that such disparate groups will ever trust each other. But what they can do is develop a level of tolerance for their neighbours that at least mean that they can still live a productive life.  For the social business there will also be inevitable differences that will need to be addressed through peer level negotiation and not destructive conflicts.

Effie our Israeli guide mentioned it several times. While we could see where his allegiances lay we could also see he was trying hard not to be overly judgemental on the other faiths. Effie also made the early comment (in jest) that the problems in the Middle East could be resolved by getting rid of CNN and similar press agencies that like reporting on only the extremist positions, that inevitably result in a drop in the Tourist trade (which is happening now).  It certainly was our experience that the general public are much more tolerant in their views than what we would have believed before we came here. This is where I believe that social media has a part to play in balancing the views of the traditional reporting agencies. The Internet facilities we have seen in Israel and Jordan are as good, if not better than we would see in Australia. Lets just hope that tolerance for freedom of speech could be the same or better. We can translate this situation to a business context as well. How many of you have experienced work cultures that reward “towing the party line and labelling the outspoken as dangerous?” I have met many mid level and senior executives that have felt politically constrained in speaking their own minds, in the name of conformity and consensus. Tolerance is about making your views known but being able to live with opposing views if the situation calls for it.

From a generational perspective I see the Gen Xs and Gen Ys as much more avid travellers than my own baby boomer generation, largely driven by the greater opportunities and affordability that now exists. In the Middle East, the cultural traditions are being challenged in the same way that previous generations have done, but perhaps at a faster pace? I reflect on Riad’s comments about his own children. He is about the same age as me. His marriage was arranged and he is looking to have at least a strong say in his children’s marriages, but he sees that he will be fighting an uphill battle, which I think he grudgingly accepts. Armed with more open, global experiences; and with it broader minds and cultural tolerances, I look forward to this generation driving the Socialisation of Business practices into the future.

It may sound like I’m suggesting that the Middle Eastern cultures are starting to modernise along the lines that we are familiar in the Western world; and that this is a good thing. With respect to women in the workplace I think this is true. Riad had mentioned that he was not supportive of the more extreme Muslim treatment of women in the workplace. I recall when teaching a knowledge management course to students who were mainly from the Middle East and being informed by some of the women in the class that they were not even permitted to be in the same meetings as men, let alone share knowledge with them! On the other hand I think we can learn a lot from those cultures that value trust relationships as I wrote about in the Side bar “Selling Networks”. Riad joked that one of the main products from small villages in Jordan are children. He has seven of his own and comes from a family of twelve, so he has many cousins. I too come from such a culture and have a large extended family. Family networks start as trusted networks by default and of course some will degrade to different degrees. In the Middle East, as in China and other parts of Asia business is still conducted through such networks. It can move surprisingly quickly, as I have indicated earlier. Western world business practices, in the absence of such networks, have tried to substitute with formal legal mechanisms. While these mechanisms are a necessary evil when it comes to scaling up an enterprise, we should always be mindful that “trust will trump contract” any day.

Nodes, ties and degrees – Social Network Analysis basics explained

I recently came across an article in Fast Company called Why Successful people have so many groups of friends. Not only was it a really interesting read, but there was also a really nice graphic by Dave Gray (founder of Xplane, and awesome with a pen!).

I figured that there were a couple of other key concepts that it would be great to include, and therefore created another drawing (trying to replicate Dave’s hand-drawn style!). Dave’s drawing is also included in this very short presentation.

Leading from the Bottom

We have been long term advocates of J.B. Quinn’s inverted hierarchy model for new service led economies.

Inverted HierarchyEssentially Quinn’s argument was that the vast majority of jobs in the developed world (around 80%) are now service oriented and that competitive advantage now comes from having ‘best in class’ competencies. His inverted hierarchy emphasises the need for line management to “support”, rather than “direct” front line staff in services organisations. Since its publication in the 1980s there has been a plethora of supporting voices from all quarters. The Deloitte’s led study “The Big Shift”; and book on “The Power of Pull”; the MIT management think tank on “Leaders Everywhere”; Steve Denning’s book “Radical Leadership”; plus numerous HBR and McKinsey articles all imploring the same message, get rid of the bureaucracy, flatten the organisation, and empower the front line staff. Easier said than done? 

Try as we might the management hierarchy, with its military heritage adopted by industry in the last century, has been a hard one to shake. Over a decade and a half of Social Network Analysis (SNA) studies has highlighted to us just how embedded this model is within organisations, though clearly the degree of hierarchical compliance does vary significantly across industries. A network model of a well functioning hierarchy will show cohesive networks at the executive level. The cohesive groups will then fragment as you move down through the levels of the organisation chart. At the base of the chart you will see shop floor level teams only connected through higher levels in the hierarchy. 

Network Hierachy

Of course in an industrial age, where the workforce was largely engaged in manufacturing or producing widgets, this form of work organisation has stood the test of time in terms of efficiency and low cost production. The situation changes when those passive widgets become active and opinion fuelled customers! As aware as we are how can we enact change to the inverted hierarchy?

 Barriers to Change

Rather than going straight to solution mode it is worth reflecting first on the nature of the barriers that we are faced with:

  1. Your organisational remuneration systems are likely to be strongly biased to the levels in the hierarchy, hence there is a vested interest for those at the top to maintain the status quo.
  2. Those part-way up the hierarchy have developed long term strategies as to how they can climb that hierarchy and have little interest in disrupting the status quo.
  3. Those at the base of the hierarchy have learnt that to progress up the hierarchy one must first learn to do what your line manager boss wants, hence reinforcing the hierarchy.
  4. For many nationalities the management hierarchy is embedded in their cultures. Asian cultures in particular have ‘respect for your elders’ and ‘respect for your leaders’ built in, even if sometimes that respect is not implicit, it is usually explicit.
  5. Even office or workplace designs reinforce the hierarchy. The default design is to co-locate those according to the organization chart. Though some forward thinking organisations are now challenging this by looking to engineer innovation and developing serendipitous connections through judicious physical space design.

There have been several sources of suggestions for facilitating the required changes. For example, leadership guru Steve Denning in his book on radical management suggests:

–       A shift in goals from making money for shareholders to delighting customers through continuous innovation.
–       A shift in the role of managers from controlling individuals to enabling self-organising teams.
–       A shift in the way work is coordinated from bureaucracy to dynamic linking.
–       A shift in values from a preoccupation with efficiency to a broader set of values that will foster continuous innovation.
–       A shift in communications from top-down commands to horizontal communications.

Gary Hamel in his writings on “Leaders Everywhere” suggests:

 –       Too much is required by too few people on top — change is belated, infrequent, convulsive, i.e. by the time the top realises that a change is needed, it’s too late.
–       Instead of continuing to ask more and more of the top leaders, we should move responsibility and expertise downwards.
–       We already realise that value is created by the associates (note: most don’t call them employees any longer), e.g. by interacting with clients, we talk about co-creation with clients.
–       One of the next important steps, after 360-feedback, is 360-compensation that gets rid of the rigid, hierarchical structure of compensation, but attributes compensation more fairly to where it is created.

Authors of the “Power of Pull”, John Hagel, John Seeley Brown and Lang Davison address the issue of client engagement (the pull) with these suggestions:

 –       Choosing environments that increase our likelihood of encountering people who share our passions; becoming and staying visible to the people who matter most.
–       Influencing their endeavors so they amplify our own work.
–       Discovering and interacting with the right people at the right time (timeliness).
–       Making the most of every serendipitous encounter (relevance).

Along the same lines MIT professor Thomas J Allen, the inventor of the ‘Allen Curve’ which articulates the level of drop off in communications with spatial separation, with co-author Gunter Henn, find that levels of physical co-location predicts the level of electronic communication. In their book the Organization and Architecture of Innovation, they make the compelling point that non-collocated teams that share an organizational membership will suffer some loss of intra-departmental communication, but this would be more than offset by increased inter-departmental communication with co-located members of other departments, which would be virtually non-existent without that co-location. The increasing availability of electronic communication facilities has no or little effect on this. So their suggestions could be summarised as:

 –       For staff involved in tasks requiring complex communications, co-location is essential.
–       For staff tasked with coordinating others, co-location is not critical
–       Where organizations are looking to build a diversity of interactions (like the base of the service pyramid) the tradeoff between intra-departmental vs inter-departmental communication, in deciding on who sits near who, is well worthwhile.

Orchestrating Change through Networks

For our part we believe that the value that SNA can add is the ability to provide specificity to these general recommendations. By providing targeted areas for action, the effects are likely to be felt in the shorter term, providing a stronger catalyst for change. For example, in addressing Denning’s recommendations, SNA can provide a baseline as to how the current organisation is working. What are the current levels of bureaucracy? Is it uniform or are some areas more bureaucratic than others? Which areas are likely to be engaging in innovative co-creation activities with clients? Is this happening at the service interface or at higher levels in the hierarchy? How are customers being engaged at each level of the hierarchy? How is client intelligence being vertically integrated up and down the hierarchy?

Management LayersThe above map is filtered to show predominantly reciprocated relationships to accentuate the relationship patterns. One can see how the management layers are closely clustered with a selection of clients. At another level we can see many associate-client disconnected clusters. The opportunity exists for the management to facilitate peer connections between these disconnected clusters to achieve a broader base of client connection, without the need to introduce bureaucratic overheads.

In addressing Gary Hamel’s suggestions, SNA can assess how much appreciation the management layers have on the value being generated at the client interfaces. We regularly find that in hierarchical organisations dependency nominations rarely point downwards i.e. managers tend not to acknowledge their dependency on their own staff, but will freely nominate ‘up and out’. In the Hamel scenario we would see many more reciprocated nominations. SNA is often compared with 360 deg reviews. When asked a question like “who helps you most in getting your job done well”?” Those staff nominated the most would qualify for higher remunerations according to Hamel. SNA can identify these ‘most valued’ staff precisely.

In terms of efficiency we had already indicated that the dependency relationships invariably point upward, rather than the other way. As Hamel indicates, this causes a logjam at the top, with many organisations paralysed while waiting for management responses. Many of the executives we work with have despaired at what they see as their staff’s inability to be accountable and to resolve peer level issues amongst themselves, rather than relying on the line management to make a call on any little dispute. We shouldn’t be surprised as hierarchies are designed this way. Unfortunately with growing interdependence between job roles the call on managers to adjudicate disputes is growing with it. What we need to see and encourage is natural ‘leaders without authority’.  These are the influencers and ‘can do’ staff who can influence others through their powers of persuasion, rather than through the power of position. They are able to successfully negotiate outcomes through co-operation and collaboration. We have found that the ‘key players’ identified by the SNA are, more often than not, these types of people. 

Natural leaders

In the above map we have identified those that are not part of the line management, yet have attracted several peer dependency nominations, which are often reciprocated (red lines).

In the “Power of Pull” much is made of being able to quickly identify the people you should be collaborating with, independent of a formal structure. An ‘industrial era’ response to these needs would be to build a skills or ‘yellow pages’ directory where everyone’s skills and experiences could be catalogued and freely searched. These efforts have largely been miserable failures. For several organisations we have been able to fill this gap by using the key players identified in the SNA as connection brokers. Rather than building expensive directories that become out of date before they are published, the SNA identified brokers who are organised to respond to people search enquires, by doing what they do naturally. And that is to provide qualified referrals, meaning that the right connections are being made in the fastest possible time.

 Yellow Pages

The “Power of Pull” also identifies the importance of serendipitous connections or relevance. In SNA terminology these are called ‘weak ties’, made famous by Mark Granovetter’s “Strength of Weak Ties” theory. Granovetter’s research identified that someone looking for a new job is much more likely to be successful by working through people that they might only know peripherally, rather than working through their closest connections. The logic is that your weak tie network provides a far broader search potential than your close ties, whose connections you are likely to be already connected to.  SNA can explore your ‘weak tie’ network, identifying those that are best positioned to broker connections to the largest number of relevant connections.

 Weak Ties Network

The above map identified only those connections that were nominated as ‘minor’ and therefore representing this organisation’s ‘weak tie’ network. The nodes were sized by a ‘betweenness’ metric, which identifies those best positioned to broker connections between diverse groups. Interestingly the most dominant grouping (coloured ‘grey) were viewed as somewhat peripheral in comparison to the core groups. Our advice to the management was to make them aware of the potential role these ‘brokers’ could play in triggering breakthrough innovation.

Finally lets address the Thomas Allen’s research and the powerful influence physical proximity has on connectivity and collaboration. This topic is addressed in more detail in Workplace Space and Connectedness, but for this article we highlight how SNA can overlay physical location attributes onto the social network analysis maps to identify just how powerful this impact might be in any given workplace. To ‘engineer serendipity’ we basically need to change where people sit. In doing this however, we don’t want to destroy existing teams. Using SNA we can clearly identify those teams showing the strongest density of internal connections. It is these teams that are mostly susceptible to the negative aspects of group think and therefore would benefit most from a more diverse suite of connections. They are also the teams least likely to be damaged by physical separation, as the existing trust links will ensure continued collaboration, independent of physical location.

 Network Map - Across floors and levelsThe above map identifies the connectivity patterns across physical work areas (identified by a Floor/Area code). In this case we can see the organisation has allocated the physical space according to the organisational structure (as per the colour of the circles). The connectivity patterns identify the ‘traffic pattern’ of connectivity across the physical space. The cohesiveness of the existing teams can also be seen, providing a choice for those teams that could be physically separated for ‘engineered serendipity’ purposes.

Summing up

There are many arguments for inverting the management hierarchy in order to thrive in today’s economy. It is however, easier said than done, with many structural mechanisms working to reinforce rather than dismantle it.

We have identified a number of ways SNA can facilitate this challenging task:

  • Identifying how clients are actually being engaged with at all levels of the organisation. Visually identifying where bureaucratic processes are impacting performance.
  • Identifying who the ‘key players’ in the organisation are, being those identified through 360 degree nominations. Rewards and acknowledgement of these key players can change behaviours.
  • Identifying the ‘leaders without authority’. These are the people at the bottom of the hierarchy who through their powers of influence and persuasion can lead the way from the bottom.
  • Use the identified key players as connection brokers. In this way ensuring that the right connections can be made at the right time, without the overhead of bureaucratic systems.
  • Build the reach across the organisation through identified brokers in the ‘weak tie’ network, as a more effective alternative to relying on the formal hierarchy.
  • Identify the most cohesive teams as those who would benefit most from an injection of diverse connections through co-location. They would also suffer least from not being physically co-located. 

Workplace, space and connectedness

I think the most important work that happens in organisations today is social, and apart from purely transactional work I can’t think of any example where working together doesn’t create better, smarter, faster or more innovative solutions. And frankly – if the work doesn’t require social interaction, why haven’t you already outsourced or automated it?

In a study of three Italian consulting companies Economist Arent Greve[1] found that employee’s personal relationships (Social Capital) was the most important factor in determining productivity. Dr Matthew Lieberman from the Social Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory at the University of California states that “The assumption that productivity is about smart people working on their own has been masking the fact that individual intelligence may only be optimised when it is enhanced through social connections to others in the group” [2].

Here at Optimice we believe that the work that really matters is inherently social, and that connectedness is the true differentiator. We aren’t the only ones believing this, and both Google and Yahoo have in public statements made it clear that the workplace plays a critical role in enabling connectivity. The link between workplace, space and connectedness is therefore a matter for serious consideration.

Space and connectedness

Did you know that if you sit more than 50 meters from another person you’d rarely – if ever – communicate (neither f2f or electronically)? Since many organisations co-locate business units, this means that you rarely speak with people outside your own business unit unless it is directly related to your work.

In the late 1970s, MIT Professor Thomas Allen researched the physical distance between people and how often they communicate. The result is known as the ‘Allen Curve’, and shows that “the probability of a pair of people in an organization communicating with each other declines rapidly as the distance between them increases”[3]. Allen found that there is a 50-meter barrier, and if a person who sits outside the barrier, then the communication literally is non-existent.

Allen Curve

Figure 1 – The Allen Curve

You might argue that the importance of physical proximity would have diminished with the rise of electronic communication methods. However, Allen repeated his research in 2006 and concluded: “Our data shows a decay of all communication media with distance”[4].

In other words: We communicate more with people that we are sitting close to regardless of the method of communication.

Allen is not saying that phone, email etc. isn’t used to communicate with people who are further away, or that we don’t communicate with people who are further away. We all know that email, phone etc. has enabled us to communicate and collaborate with people we would otherwise never have been in contact with. His point is simply that we communicate more with people that we are sitting close to.

Perhaps this was true in 2006, but shouldn’t we challenge this finding here in 2013? Surely all of the social media tools are removing the reliance on physical proximity.

There is no doubt that social media sites are helping us connect with people that we are not physically close to. At times we are even establishing relationships with people we never get to meet in real life. However, when you compare the frequency of interaction against those we are co-located with, physical proximity wins. Another way of thinking about this is to ask yourself this question: Wouldn’t you communicate more with a ‘remote’ person if you were co-located?

Our project work also shows that organisations have very clear location-based silos. For example, the map below shows the collaboration patterns for a logistics and supply chain organisation.

(The colours represent the two major locations/cities that the teams worked from)
Network Map - Location SilosApart from a few connections between the locations they are working as two separate entities. The old saying ‘out of sight – out of mind’ holds true.

Organisational charts, space and silos

Organisational silos are also created around the formal organisational structures, and it is a common challenge most organisations are faced with. When we then allocate workplaces that match the existing organisational structures by locating HR people next to other HR people, Finance people next to other Finance people etc., we are reinforcing the silos.

Our allegiance to the organisational chart – reinforced by physically co-locating business units and driven by KPIs  – results in deep silos.

Why are we insisting on co-locating people between whom collaboration is already a given due to the need for coordination?

Virtual collaboration tools have been put in place to enable efficiencies by bringing work to where the people are, rather than the other way around. It seems that the best explanation lies in the need for management to keep an eye on things, and that is most easily done when the team is within line of sight.

But there is a high price to be paid for the lack of diversity that comes with silos. Real break-throughs are less likely to happen between people who work in the same business unit, doing the same thing surrounded by like-minded people. What we need is to change our approach and orchestrate connectedness between different people with different backgrounds working on different things. The fine balance between diversity and cohesion is tipped away from the diversity dimension in the majority of organisations that we have worked with.

Orchestrating connectedness

To orchestrate connectedness we first need to baseline the existing connections. Social Network Analysis (SNA) is widely acknowledged as the most effective way to uncover collaboration patterns across locations and organisational structures. Here at Optimice we are guided by three simple questions that will quickly make these patterns visible:

  • Who do you collaborate with to get your work done?
  • What is the primary reason for this?
  • How important is this interaction for you?

By color-coding and grouping each person by location and business unit, the intra-location/organisation collaboration patterns stand out immediately. Below you’ll see an example of how quickly you can discover the collaboration patterns between various areas in a building.

Network Map - Across floors and levels

Using these insights about the current collaboration patterns we can now orchestrate connectivity be moving people who should know each other closer together. For example, if we want the people on 5H and 7H to have stronger ties, then co-locate them for a period of time and create incentives for them to make the best of the newfound ability to connect.

The power of SNA lies in our ability to be very specific about the connections we want to orchestrate, and in our ability to subsequently measure if it had the desired effect. As such it becomes a critical measure of success.

[1] Greve, A.,Benassi, M., & Sti, A.D, (2010). Exploring the contributions of human and social capital to productivity, International Review of Sociology – Revue Internationale de Sociologie, 20(1), 35-58.

[2] Lieberman, Matthew D (2013), Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired To Connect, Oxford University Press

[3] Allen, Thomas J. (1984). Managing the Flow of Technology: Technology Transfer and the Dissemination of Technological Information Within the R&D Organization. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

[4] Allen, Thomas J.; G. Henn (2006). The Organization and Architecture of Innovation: Managing the Flow of Technology. Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 152.

What’s in a Role? Another relic of the industrial age?

How should organisations manage their workforces in the post-industrial age? How should roles be described? More importantly, how does one assess whether a role is being performed adequately or not?

Think about how workforce planning is being done in your organisation. Traditionally the human resources department will sit down with senior executives to map out the types of roles and positions the organisation needs to maximise performance. These named roles will typically be accompanied by a role description. There even may be a set of named competencies attached to these named roles. Having set up the ‘template’ for the identified roles, they can then be used to recruit new staff, assess current staff, identify training and development programmes, or even compare the organisation against competency benchmarks. There are several guides and templates for doing this. Sounds very logical and rational? The problem is that this model was designed for an age when the majority of staff were engaged in repetitive industrial style work. Efficiency was achieved through standardising roles and work instructions. Feedback cycles were short with product defects, clerical errors and the like identified by other compliance checking roles. The end customer was typically several degrees of separation away from the majority of the workforce.

Wind the clock forward to today. The equivalent of a shop floor manufacturing worker or a bank clerical worker is the call centre operator or the fast food restaurant waiter or waitress. Their day-to-day interactions are not with a passive manufactured product or a paper invoice to be created and checked. They deal with end customers. People who can talk back, form opinions and make decisions that can directly impact the fortunes of your organisation. But are we still describing the needs of these key roles in the same way that we would describe the job of a factory or clerical worker of the last century? To illustrate, I have selected one of many similar examples of a template for a call centre operator, found on the Internet. I have underlined the job tasks that I really care about as a prospective ‘customer’ of these services:

Inbound Call Center Job Description
General Purpose

Answer incoming calls from customers to take orders, answer inquiries and questions, handle complaints, troubleshoot problems and provide information.

 Main Job Tasks and Responsibilities

  • answer calls and respond to emails
  • handle customer inquiries both telephonically and by email
  • research required information using available resources
  • manage and resolve customer complaints
  • provide customers with product and service information
  • enter new customer information into system
  • update existing customer information
  • process orders, forms and applications
  • identify and escalate priority issues
  • route calls to appropriate resource
  • follow up customer calls where necessary
  • document all call information according to standard operating procedures
  • complete call logs
  • produce call reports

 Key Competencies

  • verbal and written communication skills
  • listening skills
  • problem analysis and problem solving
  • customer service orientation
  • organizational skills
  • attention to detail
  • judgment
  • adaptability
  • team work
  • stress tolerance
  • resilience

Outbound Call Center Job Description
General Purpose

Interact by phone with outside parties to solicit orders for goods or services, request donations, make appointments, collect information or conduct follow-up.

 Main Job Tasks and Responsibilities

  • contact businesses or private individuals by phone
  • deliver prepared sales scripts to persuade potential customers to purchase a product or service or make a donation
  • describe products and services
  • respond to questions
  • identify and overcome objections
  • take the customer through the sales process
  • obtain customer information
  • obtain possible customer leads
  • maintain customer/potential customer data bases
  • follow up on initial contacts
  • complete records of telephonic interactions, orders and accounts

 Key Competencies

  • communication skills
  • persuasiveness
  • problem solving
  • adaptability
  • tenacious
  • negotiation skills
  • stress tolerance
  • high energy level

Now if you do the same you may not be as harsh as I have by selecting just one of the tasks/responsibilities for each of the inbound and outbound roles, but I suggest you would be hard pressed to find many more. So why is this so? Why are call centre operators being selected on their ability to become 21st century factory or clerical workers? Following processes, filling data bases, even delivering pre-prepared ‘would you like fries with that’ scripts!

A key issue is how performance is assessed against job tasks. In the industrial age, performance was largely measured by output alone. How many widgets were produced; how many invoices were processed etc.. Quality issues could be identified by ‘inspector’ roles and corrected in short order. Unfortunately the same model is being applied to call centre operators. The ‘production’ metric is number of calls made or serviced. While we get the ‘this call is being monitored for…..’, one suspects that only a very small proportion of these calls are actually ‘inspected’. A dissatisfied customer or prospect is largely invisible to the organisation. A ‘compliance check’ of a call centre operator against the job description could come up positive when they are failing on the key customer engagement dimensions and visa versa. Role descriptions from the industrial age do not translate well to our service centric economy.

Interestingly, when you look at the identified ‘Key Competencies’ for each role they appear to be directed at the job tasks that I as the ‘customer’ has identified, more so than the process centred tasks. So the designers of this job description do have a sense of what is required to be successful in the role. But how they describe the role is last century industrial.

So what’s Missing and what can be done?

engineering seredipityFirstly we need to appreciate that work is social. This was the case in the industrial age, but amplified now as the majority of jobs today require interactions with other staff to get the work done. A McKinsey study found that some 70% of staff roles require tacit knowledge and interactions. The archetype call centre operator is shown as someone sitting in their cubicle on the phone to their clients, with little scope to converse with their fellow operators or other staff. In fact if they were caught in dialogue with their fellow staff this may be seen as time taken away from the main task of taking calls. Reading the job descriptions there is little reference to interacting with anyone other than a customer and a database.  Strict compliance to these job descriptions leaves no scope for learning from more experienced staff, understanding the human aspects of escalating or re-routing customer calls etc.. In fact I would suggest that those deemed as being excellent call centre operators would probably fail a strict compliance check against the stated job role.

The problem is that job designers are still looking to prescribe job roles and processes as if they were designing a factory. The majority of staff are now ‘knowledge workers’ who need to interact with their fellow workers to effectively do their work. Knowledge workers need to be supported in building their expertise through interacting with their fellow knowledge workers, rather than forcing this activity underground. An anthological study of photocopying repair staff at Xerox identified the socialisation processes that were essentially conducted outside of normal work, yet were critical for building the technical competence required. Despite the existence of copious technical reference material, sharing stories about repair experiences provided the ‘social learning’ that contributed most to repair technician competency. We therefore need to allow the socialisation activities to be brought to the surface and be subject to inspection, analysis and improvement in the same way that business processes and work instructions are.

Making Roles Interactions Visible

The traditional role description will specify required interactions only at an aggregated level e.g. “work with marketing to…..”; “discussing needs with clients….”; “making pitches to ….”, etc.. Contrast this to the granularity of the job role specifications for the call centre operators that are processes centred: “enter new customer information into system”; “complete record of telephonic interactions, orders and accounts”.  We can easily assess whether the call centre operator is fulfilling these aspects of the job by reviewing the data base entries. But what can we do to assess whether the important interaction requirements are being fulfilled?

We have been conducting SNA studies for some 15 years now, but for the first time, through the use of an interactive web based mapping tool we have been able to facilitate explorative sessions where the clients can follow paths of enquiry that spark their interest and inquisitiveness the most.  Interestingly we have found that clients want to focus on job roles the most. They have become keenly interested into how people really do their jobs. For the first time they can look at how different people playing the same roles interact with their stakeholders. The interactions are exposed at the individual level i.e. a high resolution picture of how individual roles interact with each other.  For example, we mapped the interaction patterns of two “Account Director” roles for one client:
AD Map - Whats in a Role

At first glance it is clear that Account Director 2 is much more connected with many more links to external clients (blue dots) than Account Director 1. It’s worth noting that for Account Director 1, two of the three customer connections are shared with another staff member. For Account Director 2 the majority of customers are unique and not connected with other staff. So which is the best pattern of interaction? The fact that we could be having this conversation and doing this type of analysis at the granularity we were, is unique in itself. The conversation moved to one of “what is an ideal interaction pattern for the account director role?”

Not only are the Executive now able to think in more detail about how their knowledge workers should be interacting in some detail, they can also identify how these patterns should evolve over time. For the individuals themselves they are able to compare their own networking patterns against other peer workers. They are now able to have business improvement discussions by comparing networking patterns in the same way that a Six Sigma process might be used to assess a business process run chart.

Coming back to the question of “what is an ideal interaction pattern for position X?”, creates a whole new level of conversation, debate and analysis about job roles requiring interaction (with is now 70%+). As indicated earlier, traditional job descriptions would have phrases like “work with….”; “pass on to…”; “obtain from…” as if these were simply mechanical tasks. In reality many of these tasks may require significant negotiation backward and forth. If we think about the Account Director role, some fundamental activities could be described with terms like “Co-ordinate”; “Represent”; “Broker”; “Gatekeep”; “Liaise”; “Consult” etc.. Social Network Analysis researchers have for some time been working on identifying these types of roles that people may be playing, independent of the organisational labels that they are given. The importance of this is that job roles can be aligned with how people naturally prefer to operate. If someone is a natural broker, why not allocate him or her a formal role that plays to his or her strengths?

Looking at the Account Director (AD) role again we can identify different ways with which the role could be executed simply by analysing the networking patterns:

BP Maps-whats in a role

On the left we can see the role played as a gatekeeper i.e. all contact has to flow through the AD role like a funnel from internal to external. In the middle, the connections are the same but this time they are two-way or reciprocated. This would indicate more than a ‘handover’ is being performed and more of an active co-ordination is happening, but still the AD is central to the activity. On the right we have a situation that relationships have been built directly between the external and internal stakeholders. While the AD may have instigated the connection, ongoing interaction can continue independent of the AD, leaving the AD time to create new connections and broker new relationships. Which behaviour would you like to see in your Account Directors? Perhaps some behaviours are context dependent as the first case showed, where maturity of the market dictated how the role should be played. The important point is that we can start to have business improvement discussions that were not possible without the relationship data being collected.

Closing Thoughts

It would be naïve to think that executives are not intuitively aware of the challenges faced by many of the job roles that are demanding more effective collaboration today. This is evidenced by the mismatch in the job descriptions and competency requirements illustrated in the call centre operator example. Process centric job descriptions are potentially constraining the ability of senior executives to effectively build, monitor and enhance workforces where collaboration is replacing process as the key value driver.

The workplace is becoming more ‘socialised’. Its not only social networking, social media, or even flatter organisations. Industrial style workforce planning now needs to be adapted to meet the changing needs of businesses to be more adaptive and reactive to customers needs. The days when only the thin layer of sales staff were the only ones who interacted with clients is well and truly gone. Organisations need to identify and develop leaders at all levels and functions within the organisation. The science of Social Network Analysis has been with us for over 80 years now. It is now time to bring the practice into the mainstream for developing and managing our workforces.


HR Monthly on Social Networks: You need a map!


A few weeks ago we were contacted by the editor of HR Monthly, an Australian magazine aimed at HR professionals, for a story on social networks. The editor had heard us speak at the Hargraves Conference (blog post available here) back in May, and was seeing a real desire for the HR community to ‘add more value’ to its internal customers.

The editor was really taken by the whole area of mapping informal networks, and the outcome was a terrific story just published in HR Monthly. I have been given permission to share with our network, as it is otherwise not publicly available. Click here to download.

The article also includes some great examples from Deloitte, Bupa and one of our clients Christine Gardner. We are of course very grateful for the positive endorsement of our company, but also the value that mapping and analysing social networks brings in general.

We hope you find the article of good use.

The evidence is here: Visual portfolio mapping delivers better decisions

More than 4 years ago Optimice approached University of Technology of Sydney with a proposition to see if the visualisation of interdependencies in a project portfolio could bring business value. We first heard about this at a Knowledge Management conference in Canberra, Australia, where Graham Durant Law had looked at it as a part of his PhD research. We wanted to take this even further into other industries and also prove that this actually led to better outcomes. Now we can finally tell you about the exciting findings.

The basic concept of mapping project interdepencies is quite simple. You draw a line between the projects to show the dependency.

Project Interdependency SimpleWhere it starts to get more complicated is when you add more projects and interdepencies. This is where social network mapping comes in. We believed that the core visualisation techniques drawn from the field of social network analysis would provide the best “cognitive fit”, i.e the optimal way to represent information for decision making. Therefore, we put the proposal to UTS to test how well the social network analysis visualisation technique actually works in a portfolio management setting.

The research led to an article in the International Journal of Project Management where we outlined the benefits of using social network visualisation techniques to show project interdependencies. This article also included qualitative evidence of the positive business outcomes the visualisation led to. However, what we really lacked was some more tangible evidence.

Dr Cathrine Killen from UTS then developed an experiment that would allow us to compare the visual map with two traditional techniques for showing project interdependencies. In 264 separate experiments Dr Killen gave each participant exactly the same challenge:

In a portfolio of 26 projects with a total value of $16m, please cut 10% of the budget by removing one or more projects taking into consideration the strategic fit and flow-on effects.

The 264 participants were randomly given one of the following three different representations of the portfolio to work with:

Comparison of techniques
  • Map shows the project interdependencies as a social network map. Each project is represented as a circle, color-coded by ‘strategic fit’, and sized by budget
  • List shows the same information, but in a tabular form
  • Matrix also shows that same information, but as a matrix
The research found that the use of the map was correlated with the highest levels of decision quality. Not just to a small degree, but nearly 3 times better:

“...the percentage of research participants that made the optimal decision was highest for the group that used the network mapping VPM tool, with 28.6 percent of the participants achieving an optimal decision in the time allowed. Just over ten and eleven percent of the decisions made using the other tools, the dependency matrix and the Tabular list were optimal.

The management of interdependencies is an acknowledged area of weakness for project portfolio management. If your organisation’s project portfolio runs into the millions, if not billions, of dollars you will appreciate just how much value you can gain from choosing the best techniques to understand interdependencies. 

In these days where the time-poor executives need to make critical decisions that can have significant flow-on effects across the portfolio, we need to make sure that we provide them with the best possible foundation to make informed decisions. This is exactly what makes the visual portfolio map stand out from the rest.

For those of us who spend our lives mapping networks it is also a bonus to get empirical evidence that visualisation directly and positively impacts business outcomes.

You find a link to the Dr Catherine Killen’s paper which will be presented at the Decision Sciences Institute’s Annual Conference in Baltimore, Maryland in November 2013 here. There you can also find an interactive version of the portfolio map included in the research.

Relationship Mapping and Monitoring with Yammer

Yammer&MicrosoftYammer is a leading social networking platform for use inside organisations. Its recent acquisition by Microsoft is not only good for Yammer, but for the many Microsoft Enterprise clients who have been struggling to ‘connect’ via Sharepoint. What is most exciting for us is that the combination of Microsoft’s Active Directory with Yammer’s conversational platform now provides a real opportunity to implement the ‘Real-time Social Business Dashboard‘ which will enable enterprises to move beyond their current process monitoring to see how people are really collaborating (or not) to meet organisational objectives. 

So what’s wrong with the analytics that Yammer currently provide? Well nothing really, other than the fact that its only using a proportion of the intelligence available from its tracking data. Like most of its competitors, the analytics are what we would call “ego-centric”. In other words they track the activity patterns of individuals and then aggregate the data at team, department, company level to assess the level of engagement (read usage). The knowledge management community learnt a long time ago that activity doesn’t always map to productivity. Setting performance measures against ‘documents submitted’ resulted in lots of poor quality documents being uploaded just before performance appraisal time. But ego-centric measures will still reward this. In the social media space numerous postings in forums or voluminous tweets provide little indication of effectiveness unless they provoke a response. Social network measures focus on the relationship. Relationships are jointly owned. A direct response to a post creates a relationship. A heavy interchange of messages infers a stronger relationship (not necessarily friendly, but still a more established one than  where no interchange has occurred). A ‘like’ is also a connection. Counting ‘likes’ can be good for the ego, but even better when we know who is doing the ‘liking’. 

The Social Business Dashboard has ‘relationships’ at its core. That is not to say that current ego-centric measures would not be included. For example the volume of posts is clearly a useful indicator of activity. However social business is about collaboration. ‘Connected activity’ is what we are looking for, as we know that this form of activity is what leads to high productivity. The key component for a Social Business Dashboard is the Social Network Map. The map makes visible the network connections exposed through Yammer. By analysing the map one can see the flow of knowledge and information across the organisation. Accompanying analytics can identify who your key talents are, not by their CV, but who actually seeks them out for advice. We can identify the level of reliance on key players, the level of cross department collaboration, the areas where there may be bottlenecks impacting on customer service, order to cash cycles, ideas to innovation cycles and/or prospect to client conversions.

We have written previously about how network analytics can predict higher levels of efficiency, effectiveness and innovation, how social business drives ROI and what we are calling Social Analytics 2.0. We think this new relationship between Microsoft and Yammer will pay dividends by bringing ‘Social’ into mainstream enterprises, flagging a maturity in the market that we have long waited for.

Example Yammer Interactive Social Network Map

Below we provide an example Social Network map derived from a Yammer installation. The context was an “open innovation jam” where participants were drawn from across businesses to explore new energy and sustainability ideas and opportunities. ‘Connections’ are drawn from the Yammer discussion forum data. Fictitious organisation names have been added to provide an illustration as to how Active Directory profiling information would be included in the map.

The Optimice Webmapper utility enables one to interactively explore a social network map. The ‘flyout’ menu (use the orange triangle to control) allow you to select what attributes you want to colour (Organisation or Explore-Exploit) and/or filter the nodes by. You can also choose what relationships (Relationship Strength or Time) you want to explore.

The initial scenario shows the ‘Relationship Strength‘ map. The strength is determined by the number of posts made between pairs of participants. The size of the node relates to the number of posts received; a possible indicator of influence. Move the strength slider from left to right to expose only the strongest connections. The red links identify reciprocated postings. We like to think of these as another indicator of relationship strength. You can use the explore-exploit selectors to show only the explorers, or only the exploiter organisations. Clicking on any individual node will expose the network for just that individual. Select ‘Show All‘ to restore the map. If you like you can use the flyout menu to change the filter to ‘Organisation‘. You have to press ‘Update Map‘ anytime you change something on this menu. You can now turn on and off organisations.

Now try and change the ‘Relationship Strength‘ to ‘Time‘ and the ‘Strength Type‘ to ‘Strength >‘. Press ‘Update Map‘ to expose the new map. The map shown is the final state map but move the strength slider from left to right and the map will show how the connections built over time. You can now imagine how a dashboard might show this map evolve in real-time, while allowing analysts to ‘replay the past’ to diagnose impending issues and/or opportunities.

We are currently looking for organisations that have successfully integrated Yammer into their Microsoft Enterprise environment and are interested in pursuing a ‘Social Business Dashboard’ strategy, as described above.

Contact or

Reflections on SocialBusinessForum 2013

The annual Social Business Forum held in Milan, Italy has now been operating for 6 years. I have the honour of speaking at all 6 forums so it was not a surprise that a former attendee asked “was there anything new?”. I’d like to say that I could immediately gush with a string of amazing new developments, but in truth the question did stump me for a while. I had to sit back and reflect on the past 6 years, and there have been developments. Not the amazing blockbuster types, but clearly an evolution, more so than revolution. So in no particular order here they are:

– in 2008 at forum #1 it was the first time I witnessed the speakers, other than myself (we were all on the stage for the entire event) tweeting about the speeches. In my naivety I thought they were all being terribly rude, with lap tops open…no pads in those days… doing their email there up on the stage while a fellow speaker was talking….. until it tweeked as to what they were doing. For the 2013 edition there were more than 5,000 tweets and 800+ tweeters with tweets coming in at over 1 a second during the keynotes. We provided the networking page for the event by social network mapping the tweet traffic. I’m saving some more in-depth analysis for a later post.

– ‘The Happiness Economy’, the opening keynote by Open Knowledge Founders Rosario Sica and Emanuele Scotti was certainly a first for me. It brought home the need to appreciate that money isn’t everything. In fact happiness is a social construct, it should therefore be natural for us to expect that the social business movement should deliver both happiness and economic benefits.

Jacob Morgan from Chess Media Group told a very funny story to start his speech about catching a late night train from Venice to Milan with his new fiancee. As sometimes happens in Italy an announcement was made that the train would be delayed at a platform for about 30 minutes, so Jacob got out to walk on the platform. As also sometimes happens in Italy, after much less that 30 minutes the doors closed and the train started moving off. He was forced to make a decision to run and jump in through an open window…so his moral of the story…don’t get left standing on the platform. His story was so good I actually forgot what the main content of the speech was. But I later found out that Jacob was born in Australia….so clearly he has a good story telling heritage!

Sameer Patel was at his controversial best by pouring cold water over the social business fever with some real adoption facts …. its still not all that good! Sameer is now with SAP…and it looks like he is having an impact. Unlike many of the other vendors it appears that the SB features will be more than bolt-ons.

– To continue with ‘vendor land’, for me the last few years have been uninspiring. No shortage of new products but my sense is that the ‘big guys’ are finally coming. IBM, Microsoft (now with Yammer, rather than a sparsely dressed sharepoint) and SAP, along with Oracle are getting serious…and there are a lot of big corporate and government players just waiting for this to happen. I think we will see a boost in corporate adoption through these established players. I visited Microsoft in Stockholm after the forum and they are very upbeat about social now, with the Yammer acquisition. Its good for Yammer too as now the Microsoft Enterprise subscribers get Yammer rolled in. It also means life is going to get tough for Enterprise SB start-ups. In the social SCM space I’m still disappointed at the ‘content’ over ‘relationship’ focus. Mining social business content streams can be useful, but doesn’t the ‘R’ in CRM stand for ‘Relationship’?

– I did enjoy Talligent’s CEO Rob Howard‘s statement in his keynote, that it would be useless for him to stand there and present brochure-ware as we wouldn’t listen. In fact that is a little how I felt even in the exhibition area. My usually opening question to the vendors is ‘what is distinctive about your product’….yet to hear anything memorable! But Rob just talked about applications….much more compelling.

Ray Wang and Esteban Kolsky broke the ‘stand and speak’ format by conducting an entertaining CMO vs CIO debate. Ray had to work hard….he noted that he lost the toss :) The message was compelling though…corporate IT have some major challenges in transforming from Dr. No’s to ‘yes men/women’.

George Siemens, the Social Learning guru was back again and speculating about the major transformations that the sector is facing. No doubt ‘social’ is going to play a big part in George’s view. George just received a grant to study the effects of MOOCs…bound to be a best seller!

– I discovered another Aussie disguised as a New York banking wizz. Brett King gave a keynote on Banking 3.0. He wrote the book which has become a big seller but also has attracted $mill in venture capital to build a banking platform which can actually tell you the impact on you annual budget when you are just about to press the buy button! I sense from the discussions I had on this that it may not appeal to everyone though….sometimes we just don’t want to know!

– My final reflection is ‘what comes around goes around’. After 6 years of social business I am experiencing Knowledge Management in the 1990s all over again. Many case studies that look similar; lots of talk about ROI or not ROI; vendors that mostly don’t ‘get it’; perhaps with just one key difference….KM became ‘content centric’ something it still hasn’t shaken off. SB is ‘connections’ centric…though the content kings are still trying hard.

I like the ‘connections’ perspective…so all is still good. I think the coming years will see Knowledge Management start to fulfil its true potential through social business.


Human Capital Flows in Australian Banking – Courtesy of Linkedin

One of the lesser known features of Linkedin is the company insights feature that identifies where a company’s current staff have been employed in the past (just search for a company and then select ‘Insights’ to see where employees have come from). Now its not hard to take this data from selected firms in a given sector to create a network map based on people flows between these firms, if you like, a  visual market representation based on people flows.

So what insights can we gain from this type of visual market? For a start people flows are the closest we can get to identifying critical knowledge flows. Despite the emphasis that is put on protecting intellectual capital assets through the use of patents and secured document libraries, the real competitive insights are often held tacitly within the heads of the employees. While patents may protect old and existing ideas, more often it is the value of the ‘next idea’ that drives much of the headhunting activities undertaken by the recruitment industry. Of course its not uncommon to see a move by a high profile employee accompanied by a longer list of loyal followers to their new company. The high tech industries in particular are rife with poaching and headhunting activities, looking to leverage the unique knowledge of a successful product creator. 

Another aspect that can be investigated is the diversity of the source of employees. For example, its not uncommon for consultants and sales people in the IT/consulting industry to move between the top 4 to 5 firms in the sector. Ultimately this can lead to a ‘sameness’ between the key players in the industry, resulting in less innovation and less diversity of offerings.

To explore some of the insights that a people flow focussed visual market can provide, we have selected to investigate the top 4 Australian banks; ANZ, Westac, NAB and the Commonwealth. The Australian banking industry has been somewhat protected by anti-merging laws that govern these top four banks. This has led to a polarisation of the market around the ‘big four’, making it difficult for the smaller banks to grow to compete on  level terms. We used the Linkedin Company insights feature to mine the people flows around these four major banks. This feature provides the top 5 sources only. Using the snowball sampling approach we identified another 24 companies to form the ecosystem for the visual market map shown below:

Note: This map works best with Chrome, Firefox, IE9 and Safari 6 and above.

Some of the functions/features that you can explore with this map:

  1. There is a ‘fly out’ menu (select the orange triangle) where you can choose what you want to colour and/or filter the nodes by. The start up map uses the Australian head Office location for both the colouring and filtering.
  2. You can manipulate the ‘zoom’, ‘font’ and ‘expand’ sliders to explore the map visually
  3. You can slide the ‘relationship strength’ slider to expose the strongest flows
  4. The thickness of the lines and direction of the arrows identify the size of the flows.
  5. The red lines indicate a bi-directional flow.
  6. The size of the circle reflects the number different firms the company draws from (note this is limited to a maximum of 5 by Linkedin)
  7. The different colours represent the attribute selected. The other options are ‘industry’, ‘country’ and ‘vertex (company name)’.

Some Potential Insights

Here are some of our insights from manipulating the map. We’d be pleased to hear about yours:

  1. By moving the relationship strength slider to the right we expose the Sydney/Melbourne Head Office split. ANZ and NAB are headquartered in Melbourne, with Westpac and Commonwealth headquartered in Sydney. Staff appear to be happy to move banks but not as much cities. The balance of flows between these same city banks did not appear to favour one bank over the other.
  2. Click on IBM to find who they provide staff to and you can see that IBM is a dominant  resource for each of the major banks as well as Australia’s leading telecommunications company, Telstra. Much of this could be attributed to IBM’s dominant position in outsourcing and mainframe computing which is central to big banking.
  3. We can see that ANZ and to a lesser extent Macquarie Bank are ‘brokering’ the most international expertise, mostly from HSBC and Citibank. You can simply click on ANZ or Macquarie bank to expose their ecosystem. Macquarie bank appears to ‘feed’ Commonweatlh bank. Select ‘show all’ to get back to the full map.
  4. Select Westpac and carefully move the relationship strength slider. You may note that their ‘acquisitions’ in BT and St. George Bank are being drained of resources to the ‘mother ship’. Not as much going the other way. In fact St.George Bank also has a significant flow into Commonwealth Bank. Again the Sydney head offices would have something to do with this.
  5. Under the ‘flyout’ menu select ‘industry’ as the filter and then select ‘update map’. Now you will see the filter selections are industry sector. Now uncheck banking and finance. You should now see that Telstra is gaining significant people flows from other providers like IBM, Optus and Ericsson.
  6. Go to the fly out menu again and select ‘country’ for both the attribute colour and filter. Remember to select ‘update map’. Now uncheck Australia and the international network is exposed. Citi Bank and HSBC appear most dominant.
  7. Select Australia and the USA and uncheck the rest and you can see the role Citibank plays in connecting USA banking resources with the Australian banking industry via ANZ and Macquarie Bank.

We are not banking experts, so its not possible for us to know whether the above are really true insights or something everyone in the industry knows. If you work in the industry we’d value your comments and feedback.